Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition. Your child may begin to show symptoms by the time they are only 18-months old. It can affect how someone communicates and interacts socially.
- What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
- What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of ASD?
- Is Asperger’s Different from Autism Spectrum Disorder?
- Are There Different Types Of Autism?
- What Are The Different Severity Levels Of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
- How Is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) In Children Diagnosed?
- What Are The Very Early Indicators Of Autism In A Child?
- What Are Some Signs Of Autism In School-Aged Children?
- How Early Can Doctors And SLPs Diagnose Autism?
- What Are The Causes Of ASD?
- What Is The Treatment For Autism Spectrum Disorder In Children?
- When Should a Child Begin Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder?
- Is Speech Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Effective?
- What Are The Speech Therapy Goals For Autism?
- How Can Parents Support A Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
- Questions about Autism Parents Should Ask Their Child’s Doctor or Speech Therapist
- How Does Stamurai Speech Therapy For Autism Help Children?
1. What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental and neurological disorder. It affects how an individual interacts with others, learns, behaves, and communicates. It is a lifelong condition and not a disease.
Although Autism Spectrum Disorder is often described as a developmental disorder, children do not "grow out" of it. However, the right therapy can improve a person's interaction, communication, and learning skills depending on the severity of their Autism Spectrum Disorder signs and symptoms.
Autism is now called a spectrum disorder since there is significant variation in the types and severity of the symptoms people experience. No two individuals with ASD have the same set of symptoms that appear in the same intensity or severity.
Any child or adult can be diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder irrespective of gender, ethnicity, nationality, and socioeconomic background. Although Autism Spectrum Disorder has no cure, therapy and treatment can improve a person's quality of life by reducing the symptoms or the impact of their Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that every child receives ASD screening.
2. What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
The signs and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder may begin to appear in children as young as 2-years old. Since autism is a spectrum disorder, the signs and severity vary significantly between two individuals. Sometimes, the signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder are very conspicuous irrespective of the individual's age. At other times, the signs are subtle and may not be noticeable until the child enters elementary school.
2.1. Social Communication Disorder/Issues – Any individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder has persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across varied contexts.
Some of the common patterns of social communication deficits seen in children and adults with ASD are mentioned below.
- The child/individual may not respond to their name
- The child does not engage in co-playing with other children but plays "parallel" with them
- The individual may make inconsistent or no eye contact while communicating
- They may not be able to read expressions or understand the tone of your voice
- Any child/adult with ASD may be unable to share interests and emotions
- The child/adult may have difficulty continuing back-and-forth communication
- The child may exhibit facial expressions and gestures that do not match what they are saying
- Their voices may sound “robotic” due to the lack of natural rhythm and intonation
- They have trouble understanding others' points of view
- They face difficulty adjusting their behavior to social situations
- Children or adults with ASD may talk at length about their favorite topics without noticing how the listeners react
2.2. Behavioral Signs – restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior should be present in the individual. The individual should exhibit, or have exhibited (in the past) at least two of the following behavioral patterns.
Repeating phrases or full sentences (echolalia) without any context and/or repetitive motor movements -
- Intense interest in specific objects and topics
- May be sensitive to loud noises, textures, smells, and/or lights
- Difficulty in adjusting to changes in routines
2.3. The symptoms of ASD should be present from an early developmental stage and should not begin during late childhood or early adulthood. These symptoms may become more pronounced or noticeable as the individual grows older. Or, the individual may learn new coping strategies to mask these behaviors.
2.4. These symptoms should impact the individual's social, occupational, and other areas necessary for functioning.
2.5. None of these symptoms or disturbances should be better explainable by any other intellectual disability or developmental disorder or global developmental delay. When Autism Spectrum Disorder co-occurs with an intellectual disability or a language disorder, the concerned individual should receive a dual diagnosis. Their social communication skills should be below that of the expected developmental level.
3. Is Asperger’s Different from Autism Spectrum Disorder?
According to the latest edition of DSM, the diagnosis of Asperger’s should be given the diagnosis of ASD. Asperger’s is no longer recognized as a separate diagnosis (as per DSM-5).
Therefore, individuals who have significant social communication deficits without any of the behavioral signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder need to be re-evaluated for pragmatic or social communication disorder by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) or (child) psychologist.
4. Are There Different Types Of Autism?
Although autism has a wide range of social and behavioral signs that vary in severity, there are currently no separate diagnoses provided for the subtypes or subcategories of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
If you have received a diagnosis before 2013, you may be familiar with terms like autism disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and Asperger's syndrome.
Post 2013, all four of these disorders are included under Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
5. What Are The Different Severity Levels Of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
As per DSM-5, Autism Spectrum Disorder is currently categorized based on the severity levels of the social communication deficits and the incidence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. The severity is recorded by the professional according to the level of support, the individual needs during daily functioning.
The Severity Levels of Autism Spectrum Disorder are as follows:
ASD Level 1 – The Individuals Require Some Support
Without the support, the social communication disorder may cause noticeable impairments in their daily life and functioning. They may face difficulty in initiating social interactions and sustaining back-and-forth communication. People at this level may be able to speak full sentences but are unable to engage in to-and-fro conversations.
They have noticeable but limited flexibility in behavior which may include difficulty in switching between activities and planning.
ASD Level 2 – The Individuals Require Substantial Support
The lack of support exacerbates the marked deficits in their verbal and non-verbal communication. The person may not be able to initiate social conversations, share interests, and give unnatural responses unfit for social situations. Individuals in this stage can typically only frame simple sentences and have markedly odd nonverbal communication.
Behavioral signs at severity level 2 of Autism Spectrum Disorder may include strong indications of inflexibility, irritations towards changes, and frequent repetitive behaviors that are noticeable to the casual observer. The individual may show significant distress in changing focus.
ASD Level 3 – The Individuals Require Very Substantial Support
These individuals have severe deficits in verbal and non-verbal social communication that are evident to the casual observer. These deficits can cause disruptions in functioning, minimize their social interactions severely, and limit their responses in social situations. They may appear completely disconnected from the outside world due to their limited interests and limited (few intelligible words) verbal communication.
Their behavior is restricted and repetitive and may include "stimming." They experience extreme difficulty in coping with changes. The individuals at Level 3 of ASD find it extremely distressful to alter their actions or focus.
6. How Is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) In Children Diagnosed?
The symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder can vary from one person to the next, depending on the severity level. ASD symptoms and autism speech patterns may even go undetected in children.
All children are expected to go through standard developmental stages. Some do so later than others. However, if they have not reached a developmental milestone after a significant delay or have shown signs of regression, it may be an early sign of autism. Even speech delay can be a sign of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a child.
You can refer to this developmental milestone checklist to see if your child is developing at an expected rate.
If there are any delays, notify your child’s doctor immediately.
Screenings may involve small tests and assessments depending on the child's age. The healthcare provider will conduct these tests that evaluate your child's communication skills, language development, cognition, emotions, and behavior.
Although it is not a diagnosis, developmental screening can help you understand if your child requires a comprehensive developmental evaluation for Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Comprehensive Developmental Evaluation
If your child’s healthcare provider recognizes signs of autism or symptoms that heighten the risks during a developmental screening, they may run a formal assessment and evaluation.
The comprehensive evaluation process typically involves a child psychologist, speech-language pathologist, or another specialist. It may include a structured test that helps determine whether your child has Autism Spectrum Disorder and if they require special therapy.
There are no imaging or blood tests for the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. A clinician relies on observation of the social communication deficits and behavioral signs for diagnosis. All children should be screened for Autism Spectrum Disorder between the ages of 18-months and 24-months during medical checkups.
7. What Are The Very Early Indicators Of Autism In A Child?
The very early indicators of autism may begin to present themselves between the ages of 12-months to 18-months. Some of the very early signs of autism in children may include –
- No babbling by the age of 12-months
- The child has not said their first words by the age of 16-months
- The child does not speak two-word phrases by the time they are 2-years old
- They do not respond to their name
- They may show language regression or the loss of previously acquired language and social skills
- They have poor eye contact
- They do not smile or reciprocate expressions
- The child has no social responsiveness
For the diagnosis of ASD, all these signs don't need to be present in one child. However, the presence of multiple signs in the child increases their chance of receiving an ASD diagnosis.
8. What Are Some Signs Of Autism In School-Aged Children?
It is common for school-aged children to be diagnosed with ASD since it’s easy to miss the signs in the very early stages of development. Some of the later indicators of autism in school-aged children include –
- The child is unable to make friends or sustain friendships with their peers
- The child is unable to initiate and sustain conversations
- They may lack the ability to engage in imaginative co-playing with other children
- The child may show repetitive and unusual use of language
- They may exhibit unnaturally intense or hyper-focused interest
- They may have a preoccupation with specific objects and/or subjects
- The child may not be flexible or adaptable to changes in routines and/or rituals
- They may show signs of hypo- or hyper-reactivity to sensory inputs (loud sounds, lights, texture, temperature, smells, or taste)
- The presence of several of these signs indicates the possibility of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
9. How Early Can Doctors & SLPs Diagnose Autism?
It is a myth that a child has to be able to talk before they can be diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). As discussed earlier, a child as young as 1-year old may begin to exhibit the signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
A clinician may be able to diagnose ASD in a child who is only 18-months old. Talking or speech is not always necessary to evaluate a child's social communication skills. A clinician can rely on the child's social reciprocity, eye contact, and expression to make an ASD diagnosis.
10. What Are The Causes Of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Parenting skills or the type of parenting have no role to play in causing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
Genetics & Environment
Researchers are yet to find out what causes ASD. However, several years of research suggest that a combination of genetic and environmental factors affect development that can lead to ASD.
Some of the factors that increase the likelihood of an individual developing ASD are –
- Having one or more siblings with ASD
- Advanced parental age
- Co-occurrence of genetic conditions (like Fragile X syndrome or Down syndrome)
- Having low birth weight (lower than 5 pounds)
11. What Is The Treatment For Autism Spectrum Disorder In Children?
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a lifelong condition. However, there are therapies for autism to reduce the difficulties and help a child with autism learn new skills. Since people with autism may face a wide range of challenges, there is not a single-best-treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Children at all levels of severity may benefit from behavioral, psychological, and educational therapy.
Behavioral Therapy - Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) for ASD
ABA uses operant conditioning techniques to reshape, modify and replace unwanted behaviors. ABA is also called behavioral engineering since it focuses on the social significance of the target behavior(s). It is a pragmatic technique that considers how it's possible to get the individual to complete a task or new behavior.
Clinicians typically rely on the reversal design or multiple baseline design to modify the unwanted behavior(s). It is highly effective in treating someone who has repetitive behaviors and actions due to ASD.
Educational Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Since children with ASD prefer a highly structured routine, educational therapy is effective for teaching them conventional academic lessons as well as social interactions and pragmatic communication skills.
Speech and Language Therapy for ASD
Speech and language are typically affected at the severity levels 2 and 3 of ASD. Speech and language therapy can help your child build their verbal and non-verbal communication skills. It can also equip your child with alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) skills that may improve their quality of life.
Providing care for a child with ASD may be trying and exhausting. Revisiting the family dynamics and overall family relationships is very important when you have a child with autism. The therapist can help you overcome anxiety, fear, and depression. They can teach you new techniques for communicating with your kid. You can also get some expert guidance on helping your child manage their behavior problems and teaching them life skills.
Other Therapy Ideas
Music therapy, art therapy, dance therapy, and group therapy are some of the effective ways to address the needs of children with autism. Remember that each child with ASD is unique, and each has their set of likes and dislikes. Always talk to their clinician, psychologist, or Speech-Language Pathologist before choosing a type of therapy for your child.
Is There A Medication for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
No medicines can cure autism. Clinicians may also recommend medication in some cases if the diagnosed individual has problems with irritability, hyperactivity, aggression, attention problems, anxiety, and depression.
12. When Should a Child Begin Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Children with ASD may begin play therapy, art therapy, and music therapy for children with autism as early as 18-months of age. If a child receives an ASD diagnosis, it is best to start therapy ASAP.
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), USA, the early interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder should occur during or before preschool age (i.e. 2-years). A child's brain has high plasticity – the ability to change and absorb new information. High plasticity means the same treatment and therapy for children with ASD shows better results in the long run when applied early.
If the child begins therapy as early as 2-years old, they get the best start possible and the chance to develop to their best potential.
13. Is Speech Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Effective?
Autism affects speech and communication skills negatively. The severity of social communication disorder will vary from one person to another – some may be able to frame and produce complete sentences, while others may be completely non-verbal. Therefore, the type, intensity, and duration of speech therapy for each individual will vary as well.
A speech-language pathologist (SLP) will play the most critical role in determining the treatment for ASD best suited for an individual. You can find some of the most effective speech therapy exercises for kids with autism that you can practice at home with your child right here.
The SLP will work with your child and family members to evaluate the current communication strengths and weaknesses. They will tailor a therapy plan based on the unique needs of your child.
Some of the skills that will be the focus of speech and language therapy for autism spectrum disorder in kids are –
Verbal communication may be a challenge to children with autism. Verbal communication is of utmost importance when someone wants to share their thoughts! Your speech therapist can help your child overcome the speech and language barriers that keep them from talking clearly and confidently.
Gestures and Body Language
Individuals with autism may not always use the body language or gestures appropriate for a social situation or conversation. An SLP can help children understand others' body language and gestures. And they enable the children to emulate similar gestures, expressions, and body language while communicating with others. Therapy can help a child with autism pick up the subtle physical signs during communication.
Pragmatic Communication Skills
Pragmatic communication skills involve knowing the appropriate time and place to say something. For example, wishing someone "good morning" only in the mornings or saying "thank you" when someone says something nice are essential social (pragmatic) skills that can help your child become better at communicating in social situations.
To-And-Fro Conversation Skills
Speech therapists will work with your child by practicing back-and-forth conversations during an online speech therapy session for autism spectrum disorder. Asking simple questions, answering them, making small observations, and paying compliments are all part of conversation skills that offline or online speech and language therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder will cover.
Many children on the autism spectrum speak in a robotic or monotonous voice. Prosody training will help your child sound more natural. An SLP will work with your child to ensure that their voice goes up and down naturally during a conversation. It will develop their vocal skills and modulate their tone.
Therapy for autism often targets social skills that enable a child to make friends, play with others, respond in class, and communicate spontaneously.
Grammar and Syntax
Children with autism may use the third person to speak about themselves or use incorrect grammar and syntax while sharing their thoughts and ideas. Speech therapists can address such mistakes during their sessions and help your child pick up the correct grammar organically through role-play and autism speech therapy activities for children.
14. What Are The Speech Therapy Goals For Autism?
Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder typically have overlapping goals. It is common for a child to attend multiple forms of therapy such as art therapy, behavior therapy, and educational therapy if they have autism. Some of the common speech therapy goals for autism therapy include –
Improvement of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Skills
The therapist may use naturalistic approaches to reinforce the communication skills the child has already acquired. For example, if the child says, "I want ball," the child gets a ball. Naturalistic approaches aim to get the child to initiate communication.
Sometimes, children with severe autism are non-verbal. They do not use speech, but they still have the necessity and urge to communicate their needs. The therapist can teach them new communication methods to “talk” to people around them. These communication methods may include –
- Sign language and gestures
- Speech output devices
- Communication through electronic devices like smartphones and iPads
- Picture exchange communication system (PECS)
Enhancement of Social Communication Skills
Reinforcement of positive behavior and regular practice can help children with autism develop and maintain the communication skills necessary to develop social relations. Through group therapy, play therapy, and art therapy the professionals try to teach children the importance of sharing, considering others' perspectives, and choosing the appropriate responses.
Improvement of Cognitive Skills
The inherent cognitive skills may vary widely among children with autism. However, research shows that it is indeed possible to improve a child’s cognitive skills through regular therapy and activities for children with ASD.
Minimizing the Effect of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors
Behavior therapy (ABA) can help minimize the restricted and repetitive behaviors in a child with mild to severe autism without using any negative reinforcement. The child may learn new desired behavior that replaces their repetitive actions.
The overall goal of any therapy for ASD is to help the child acquire skills that will allow them to grow up to be fully functional and independent individuals.
15. How Can Parents Support A Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
Take the First Step Towards Autism Therapy
Don’t wait for the pediatrician or other healthcare providers to refer you to a specialist if you notice any signs of autism in your child. Contact your pediatrician or a specialist the moment you have reason to believe that your child may have Autism Spectrum Disorder. Starting therapy for ASD will help your child make up for the deficits in social communication skills and cognitive skills faster.
Educate Yourself – Refer to credible websites for authentic information on Autism Spectrum Disorder in children and related topics. Learn about ASD management, therapy, and treatment. If possible, seek guidance from specialists online; for continued learning, subscribe to peer-reviewed journals that publish data and research on ASD.
Ask Questions – Do not shy away from asking questions about autism. However, make sure that you are asking the right person. Talk to your child's healthcare experts, speech language pathologists, and psychologists. Have an open discussion about all your fears and anxieties regarding your child's future.
Build A Team – It truly takes a village! It is going to be a long journey; you and your child will see several physicians, psychologists, special educators, teachers, and therapists after the diagnosis. So, why not build a team of trusted professionals who have your child's best interest in their minds?
Maintain Up-To-Date Records – With numerous visits comes insurmountable paperwork. You will have to collect and organize all the reports since the first evaluation. One of the smarter ways to do this is to scan the reports and upload them to a secure cloud. Keeping them on the cloud also means 24/7 access to the files, and you can pull out any eval report any time you have a quick meeting with your child's therapist.
Become The Expert On Your Child – Who can know your child better than you? The more you learn about Autism Spectrum Disorder and observe the unique ways of communication your child has, the closer you will feel to them. That is most important during ASD therapy. You can provide key information on your child's likes, dislikes, repetitive behavioral patterns, and triggers to the therapist.
Practice Unconditional Regard For Your Child – Every child is unique, and so is your child. There is no reason to compare your child to others. Spend time with them, learn and enjoy their exceptional company. You have entered an uncharted domain, and you have every reason to be afraid! But don't let that cloud the relationship you share with your little one. Talk to the therapist or a personal psychologist about your insecurities.
Create a Safe Space at Home
Home should be a safe and structured space for any child. For children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, routines and structures are of utmost importance. Take steps to turn your home into a sanctuary for your child.
Maintain A Schedule – Maintain a highly structured routine for daily meals, bath times, playtime, therapy, television, school, and bedtime. Keeping a schedule can help your child feel more secure and calm.
Welcome Therapy Home – Therapy for ASD should not end outside the clinician’s office. Take time to talk to the therapist and learn new speech therapy exercises for kids with autism at home that you can practice with your child to boost their communication efforts.
Learn About Positive Reinforcement – Positive reinforcement is critical to teaching children desired behavior. It is especially useful for any child with ASD. Praise them for acquiring new skills or completing a task successfully. Make sure they understand that you are praising them. If you are unsure about the entire process, talk to your child's therapist and learn how to positively reinforce desired behavior in children with ASD.
Work On Your Communication Skills
Children with ASD have unconventional ways of communicating verbally and non-verbally. They may face several speech and language-related challenges. However, there are a couple of simple ways you can contribute to their progress –
Identify Their Non-Verbal Communication – Your child may have unique ways of telling you that they are hungry, thirsty, bored, or tired. Pay attention to these cues, gestures, or signs. They may use distinctive sounds or expressions to communicate their needs. Whole words and complete sentences aren't always necessary to communicate successfully. It's all about the bond you share with your child. As long as you understand each other, nothing can stop you!
Identify their triggers – Children with autism are particularly susceptible to loud noises, sudden changes in temperature, peculiar smells, and textures. The reactions to sudden change may include disruptive behavior. Never refer to these sudden behavior changes as "tantrums." Instead, try to find out what causes these behaviors and minimize the external stimulus.
Understand Your Child – It’s easier said than done! Children with autism may feel frustrated and angry when we fail to understand them. “Temper tantrums” may be more common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, but that only means we need to work harder to understand what they need. Try to pick up on their non-verbal cues to see what they want or need.
Have Fun – Children always like to have fun. The definition of fun may change – not all children want to roll around in the mud with their dog. Some want to organize their toys according to color or size. Focus on what makes your child happy and try to participate in the activity. Playing is an essential part of therapy and your child should never have to miss out on their childhood.
Pay Attention to Your Needs
It is easy to feel burnt out when you are only paying attention to what your child needs. You must not forget that you are a fully functional human being with your desires and dreams. It is never alright to neglect your needs or always put your needs on the backburner.
Find Support Groups – There are several support groups for parents of children with ASD. You can meet families facing similar situations from across the town or city. You can join online forums where people share new information and best practices that have helped their children.
Seek Counseling – If the emotional burden becomes too much and you need to vent, don't feel ashamed. As healthy human beings, we are supposed to feel a full range of emotions, and you have every right to feel the negative ones too! Instead of bottling up your sadness, anxiety, guilt, or fear, talk to a professional who can help you process these emotions. You can speak to a psychological counselor or psychologist to discuss your feelings in a safe and non-judgmental environment.
Take A Break – You have every right to take a break. You can choose the services of a qualified caregiver or daycare where your child will receive the necessary supervision and care while you can get a few hours off. It is always best to speak to your child’s therapist to find out if they are ready. You can also ask for references and recommendations from the professional.
16. Questions about Autism Parents Should Ask Their Child’s Doctor or Speech Therapist
- Why do you think my child has/doesn’t have autism?
- Do you observe any signs of ASD in my child?
- Can you confirm the ASD diagnosis?
- Is there a way to know how severe my child’s autism is or will be?
- What changes can I expect in my child’s behavior as they grow up?
- How will autism affect the way they communicate?
- How will autism affect my child’s education?
- Will my child need regular care and any special attention?
- Where can I find extra support for families of children with ASD?
- Where can I learn more about ASD and how it affects families?
17. How Does Stamurai Speech Therapy For Autism Help Children?
The Stamurai team understands that no two children with Autism Spectrum Disorder have the same needs. Therefore, every family is matched with a certified speech therapist who can evaluate and provide the best online speech therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder to their child.
Your child’s age and the severity of the disorder play critical roles in determining the method and type of online speech therapy for ASD.
Online Speech Therapy for Autism for Children under the Ages of 3-Years
Parents play an integral role in the ASD therapy of children under the age of 3-years. Parents stay in direct touch with the certified therapist. Parents learn the activities and continue speech therapy for autism at home. The therapist receives feedback from the parents about the child’s progress in behavior and communication during each session.
Online Speech Therapy for Autism for Children between the Ages of 3-Years and 6-Years
Parents still play an integral role, but children between 3 and 6-years old can attend video sessions with the therapist. The parent sits in during these sessions. Both the child and their parent(s) learn the important skills that they can practice outside the session.
Online Speech Therapy for Autism for Children 7-Years Old and Older
Children who are 7-years old or older can attend online speech therapy for autism on their own, but our therapists advise parents to stay in the loop. Even older children require at-home autism speech therapy activities that the parents need to moderate. The therapist receives feedback directly from the child and their parents during each session.
Online Speech Therapy for Autism in Adults
Stamurai also provides speech therapy and stuttering therapy for adults with autism spectrum disorder. While most adults attend the therapy sessions by themselves, our therapists do not discourage the participation of parents, significant others, siblings, or other family members.